Researchers disclose a now-patched remote code execution (RCE) vulnerability in the Apache Cassandra database software.
JFrog researchers publicly disclosed details of a now-patched high-severity security vulnerability (CVE-2021-44521) in Apache Cassandra database software that could be exploited by remote attackers to achieve code execution on affected installations.
Apache Cassandra is an open-source NoSQL distributed database used by thousands of companies.
“JFrog’s Security Research team recently disclosed an RCE (remote code execution) issue in Apache Cassandra, which has been assigned to CVE-2021-44521 (CVSS 8.4).” reads the analsyis published by JFrog. “This Apache security vulnerability is easy to exploit and has the potential to wreak havoc on systems, but luckily only manifests in non-default configurations of Cassandra.”
Cassandra offers the functionality of creating user-defined-functions (UDFs) that allow to perform custom processing of data in the database.
JFrog researchers that discovered that when the configuration for user-defined functions (UDFs) are enabled, threat actors could leverage the Nashorn engine to escape the sandbox and achieve remote code execution.
Cassandra’s development team decided to implement a custom sandbox around the UDF execution which uses two mechanisms to restrict the UDF code” states the report.“
Experts noticed that the exploitation is possible when the cassandra.yaml configuration file contains the following definitions:
- enable_user_defined_functions: true
- enable_scripted_user_defined_functions: true
- enable_user_defined_functions_threads: false
“When the option is set to false, all invoked UDF functions run in the Cassandra daemon thread, which has a security manager with some permissions. We will show how to abuse these permissions to achieve sandbox escape and RCE.” continues the analysis.
Experts shared a PoC to create a new file named “hacked” on the Cassandra server
Apache released versions 3.0.26, 3.11.12, and 4.0.2 to address the vulnerability, it adds a new flag “allow_extra_insecure_udfs” that’s set to false by default, it prevents turning off the security manager and blocks access to java.lang.System..
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